Heat transfer in fluids can occur via convection, in which the flow carries heat. Convection currents are produced by temperature differences. Hotter (less dense) parts of the fluid rise, while cooler (more dense) areas sink. Birds and gliders make use of upward convection currents to rise, and we rely on convection to remove ground-level pollution.

Forced convection, where the fluid does not flow of its own accord but is pushed, is often used for heating (e.g., forced-air furnaces) or cooling (e.g., fans, automobile cooling systems).

Important fact: convection is much more efficient than conduction.